Running Netware 3.12 on Qemu / KVM 2.8.0

So yeah, let’s build a NetWare 3.12 server! I’ve covered this over and over and over, but heh let’s do it again!

First things first, the default position of the NE2000 card at 0x300/IRQ 9 does NOT WORK.  This is the biggest stumbling block, and time waster right there.  I loaded a PCnet driver, and it didn’t lock, but it didn’t work.  I loaded 2 ne2000’s thinking the second would come up in the correct position but that didn’t work either.  The solution of course is to dive into the parameters for QEMU to drive devices.

So for the fun of it, here is how I’m going to run this in a nested VM.  It’s also why I didn’t bother enabling the ‘-enable-kvm’ flag.  Although on a real machine I would.

qemu-system-i386 -m 16 \
-cpu 486 \
-net none \
-vnc :1 \
-device ne2k_isa,mac=00:2e:3c:92:11:01,netdev=lan,irq=11,iobase=0x320  \
-netdev vde,id=lan,sock=/tmp/local \
-hda netware312.qcow2 \
-hdb netware312_data.qcow2 \
-parallel none \
-monitor tcp::4400,server,nowait

So the key portion here is the iobase & irq.  This let’s me sidestep the IRQ 9, port 0x300 issue.  Talking to the monitor and running ‘info qtree’ I’m able to look at the parameters that I can pass the network card:
bus: isa.0
type ISA
dev: ne2k_isa, id ""
  iobase = 800 (0x320)
  irq = 11 (0xb)
  mac = "00:2e:3c:92:11:01"
  vlan = 
  netdev = "lan"
  isa irq 11

As you can see there is actually a few further things I could have set, but the key ones here being the iobase, the irq, the mac address, and then assigning it to a netdev, in this case I then bind it to a VDE.

Now the fun part goes back to the old days of Netware when your network could run several possible frame times.  If you have 2 machines with different frames, they will not see each-other.  it was a cheap way to hide networks well until the wide spread availability of sniffers.  Naturally cisco and Novell have different terms for the same things.  Below are the ones that are relevant to Ethernet:

Frame Types
Novell cisco
ETHERNET_802.3 novell-ether
ETHERNET_802.2 sap
ETHERNET_Snap snap

So in my case on my Netware server I simply load my NE2000 like this:

BIND IPX TO NE2000 NET=800852

Next on my cisco router I simply need:
ipx routing ca00.06a3.0000

interface FastEthernet0/0
ipx network 800852

And now I can see my server from the router:
HKOffice#sho ipx servers
Codes: S - Static, P - Periodic, E - EIGRP, N - NLSP, H - Holddown, + = detail
U - Per-user static
1 Total IPX Servers

Table ordering is based on routing and server info

Type Name Net Address Port Route Hops Itf
P 4 HONGKONG 852.0000.0000.0001:0451 2/01 1 Fa0/0

And the interface looks busy on NetWare

NetWare 3.12

NetWare servers advertise their internal networks, much like how people should be using loopback adapters in OSPF, or EIGRP … So if you check the IPX routing table, you’ll see the wire route to the internal network:

HKOffice#sho ipx route
Codes: C - Connected primary network, c - Connected secondary network
S - Static, F - Floating static, L - Local (internal), W - IPXWAN
R - RIP, E - EIGRP, N - NLSP, X - External, A - Aggregate
s - seconds, u - uses, U - Per-user static/Unknown, H - Hold-down

2 Total IPX routes. Up to 1 parallel paths and 16 hops allowed.

No default route known.

C 800852 (NOVELL-ETHER), Fa0/0
R 852 [02/01] via 800852.002e.3c92.1101, 150s, Fa0/0

Just like that!

One thing to note, on VDE, I had an issue where the NetWare server takes about a minute before it’ll see traffic.  It could be my IOS for all I know…..

Novell Netware 3.12 once more runs on Qemu!

This version of Qemu seems to be one of the better ones in a LONG LONG time.

Netware 3.12

Netware 3.12

Much to my amazement, as I fully expected this to crash much like all the other versions, it actually runs.

qemu-system-i386.exe -m 16 -hda netware312.disk -device ne2k_isa,irq=10,iobase=0x300 -soundhw pcspk -serial none -parallel none -k en-us

I’m just more amazed it works.  Now I did try it on my old setup of a NE2000 on 0x300 Interrup 2/9 but I was getting some IRQ issues.  So I went ahead and reconfigured Netware for IRQ ‘A’, and set the CLI for 10. Of course I haven’t actually tested networking, this is really a ‘wow it did something’ statement.  No doubt I’ll have to build a new GNS3 test bed with this Qemu, and see how Netware performs.

16 and a half years of uptime

As much as the whole ‘uptime’ wars passed with the ever increasing need for patching, this is pretty amazing.

Over on arstechnica a Novell Netware 3.12 server by the name Intel had to be finally shut down after 16 and a half years.  Apparently the bearings in the two SCSI disks had gotten so loud it sounded like a car dragging it’s muffler.

xx days!

6030 days of uptime!

It’s still pretty impressive, and in some ways that was one thing Novell got right with Netware was that it was unstoppable.  Of course their big ‘goof’ was in the application space.  While there was a version of Oracle for Novell Netware, it was a major pain to deal with, and the GUI simplicity of Windows NT pretty much put an end to Netware.

But in some shops they don’t fix it until it’s broke.  Even if it takes a decade and a half.

Qemu vs KVM with Novell Netware 3.12

So I received an interesting tip, talking about the latest Qemu version, when it was mentioned that it isn’t the hardware that is at fault with Netware not running, but rather something in the emulated CPU.

Because, get this, Novell Netware runs in KVM.

Novell Netware 3.12

Novell Netware 3.12

I was taken back, all this time I thought it was something in the -M isapc definition that broke, but it’s the CPU!  I even rebuilt Qemu with the TCG interpreter, and it too breaks.  I even went one more crazy step, and installed with the ancient isadisk controller, and NE2000 on the ISA bus, and it works!

So for now my old copy of Netware I bought a million years ago lives in the cloud!

Yet another update for Novell Netware 3.12

I managed to come across this link, which details some installation experience with Netware 3.12 on VMWare.

What is more interesting is that someone mentions that it’ll run on VirtualBOX!

So downloading their toolset and whatnot I proceed to install on VirtualBOX, and get a booting Netware 3.12 system using the ISADISK driver… I couldn’t find the IDEHAM thing but you get the idea, it actually WORKS!

Novell Netware 3.12 on VirtualBOX!

I’ve got to admit I’m really surprised!  So for the heck of it I try the same disk image on Qemu and get…


The usual panic/crash after mounting a disk volume.  Its a damned shame, but hell at least there is something out there that can run Novell Netware!!!

Dead end on the ISA disks.

Well I really thought I was going to make some headway on this.

But the answer was no.

However for the sake of completeness, let me at least document what I did.. The IBMPC hardware is initalized in hw/pc_piix.c

You’ll find this little GEM:

if (pci_enabled) {
PCIDevice *dev;
dev = pci_piix3_ide_init(pci_bus, hd, piix3_devfn + 1);
idebus[0] = qdev_get_child_bus(&dev->qdev, “ide.0”);
idebus[1] = qdev_get_child_bus(&dev->qdev, “ide.1”);
} else {
for(i = 0; i < MAX_IDE_BUS; i++) { ISADevice *dev; dev = isa_ide_init(ide_iobase[i], ide_iobase2[i], ide_irq[i], hd[MAX_IDE_DEVS * i], hd[MAX_IDE_DEVS * i + 1]); idebus[i] = qdev_get_child_bus(&dev->qdev, “ide.0”);

So I did the obvious thing and just wrapped it with a ‘pci_enabled=0;’ and a ‘pci_enabled=1’, basically turning off PCI for the IDE initialization so it’d load the isa_ide_init proc. Well that just then crashed Qemu when it was reconciling geometry for the NVRAM. 20 minutes with GDB and I figure that the code has morphed enough that it’s basically expecting 2 IDE controllers, and the ISA thing just isn’t building out what it wants so it’s just a quick fix in hw/pc.c

static void pc_cmos_init_late(void *opaque)

ide_get_bs(hd_table, arg->idebus0);
ide_get_bs(hd_table + 2, arg->idebus1);

So I comment out the second ide_get_bs and lo Qemu doesn’t crash anymore! But the BIOS says there is no hard disks?! So I’m figuring it’s a SeaBIOS issue, so checking their changelog, I see that there is something about not trusting ISA controllers on PCI systems.

So I’ll just have to back out that change, or just hack the thing to re-enable ISA IDE controllers. Luckily this was kind of easy to spot, as someone had left the magical words ‘isapc’ in ata.c

if (!CONFIG_COREBOOT && !pcicount) {
// No PCI devices found – probably a QEMU “-M isapc” machine.
// Try using ISA ports for ATA controllers.
init_controller(0, -1, IRQ_ATA1
init_controller(1, -1, IRQ_ATA2

So all I had to do was ensure that this was called, no matter what (comment out the if, leave the block). Sadly MinGW couldn’t build SeaBIOS so I spent the better part of an hour downloading Slackware 13.37 (which was … less then expected) fighting with it’s frame buffer, then the linker gave me this exciting bit.

cannot move location counter backwards (from 00000000000067e0 to 0000000000000000)

Good grief.

The fix is to apparently use binutils 2.20.51 . Slackware came with 2.21.51 .. Which apparently broke this needed function (again). So I wound up downloading the source from the MinGW project of all things (I know, wth?) having fun with p7zip (it installs a 7za?!) then I could FINALLY build my BIOS. First a generic test to make sure it works, then the modified one.

And into the crash. To verify I at least was doing what I thought, I turned on some debugging in the BIOS, which seamed normal, and then just fired up qemu with this flag:

-monitor telnet:,server,nowait

So I can telnet in, and capture the full device tree. Which you get with…

info qtree

And you can see, the IDE is indeed on the ISA bus.

bus: main-system-bus
type System
dev: hpet, id “”
gpio-in 1
dev-prop: timers = 3
dev-prop: msi = off
mmio fed00000/00000400
dev: i440FX-pcihost, id “”
bus: pci.0
type PCI
dev: PIIX4_PM, id “”
dev-prop: smb_io_base = 45312
bus-prop: addr = 01.3
bus-prop: romfile =
bus-prop: rombar = 1
bus-prop: multifunction = off
bus-prop: command_serr_enable = on
class Bridge, addr 00:01.3, pci id 8086:7113 (sub 1af4:1100)
bus: i2c
type I2C
dev: smbus-eeprom, id “”
bus-prop: address = 87
dev: smbus-eeprom, id “”
bus-prop: address = 86
dev: smbus-eeprom, id “”
bus-prop: address = 85
dev: smbus-eeprom, id “”
bus-prop: address = 84
dev: smbus-eeprom, id “”
bus-prop: address = 83
dev: smbus-eeprom, id “”
bus-prop: address = 82
dev: smbus-eeprom, id “”
bus-prop: address = 81
dev: smbus-eeprom, id “”
bus-prop: address = 80
dev: PIIX3, id “”
bus-prop: addr = 01.0
bus-prop: romfile =
bus-prop: rombar = 1
bus-prop: multifunction = on
bus-prop: command_serr_enable = on
class ISA bridge, addr 00:01.0, pci id 8086:7000 (sub 1af4:1100)
bus: isa.0
type ISA
dev: isa-ide, id “”
dev-prop: iobase = 0x170
dev-prop: iobase2 = 0x376
dev-prop: irq = 15
isa irq 15
bus: ide.0
type IDE
dev: ide-drive, id “”
dev-prop: unit = 0
dev-prop: drive = ide1-cd0
dev-prop: logical_block_size = 512
dev-prop: physical_block_size = 512
dev-prop: min_io_size = 0
dev-prop: opt_io_size = 0
dev-prop: bootindex = -1
dev-prop: discard_granularity = 0
dev-prop: ver = “0.14.0”
dev-prop: serial = “QM00003”
dev: isa-ide, id “”
dev-prop: iobase = 0x1f0
dev-prop: iobase2 = 0x3f6
dev-prop: irq = 14
isa irq 14
bus: ide.0
type IDE
dev: ide-drive, id “”
dev-prop: unit = 0
dev-prop: drive = ide0-hd0
dev-prop: logical_block_size = 512
dev-prop: physical_block_size = 512
dev-prop: min_io_size = 0
dev-prop: opt_io_size = 0
dev-prop: bootindex = -1
dev-prop: discard_granularity = 0
dev-prop: ver = “0.14.0”
dev-prop: serial = “QM00001”
dev: isa-fdc, id “”
dev-prop: driveA = floppy0
dev-prop: driveB =
dev-prop: bootindexA = -1
dev-prop: bootindexB = -1
isa irq 6
dev: port92, id “”
dev: i8042, id “”
isa irqs 1,12
dev: isa-parallel, id “”
dev-prop: index = 0
dev-prop: iobase = 0x378
dev-prop: irq = 7
dev-prop: chardev = parallel0
isa irq 7
dev: isa-serial, id “”
dev-prop: index = 0
dev-prop: iobase = 0x3f8
dev-prop: irq = 4
dev-prop: chardev = serial0
isa irq 4
dev: mc146818rtc, id “”
dev-prop: base_year = 2000
dev: i440FX, id “”
bus-prop: addr = 00.0
bus-prop: romfile =
bus-prop: rombar = 1
bus-prop: multifunction = off
bus-prop: command_serr_enable = on
class Host bridge, addr 00:00.0, pci id 8086:1237 (sub 1af4:1100)
dev: ioapic, id “”
gpio-in 24
mmio fec00000/00001000
dev: fw_cfg, id “”
dev-prop: ctl_iobase = 0x510
dev-prop: data_iobase = 0x511
mmio ffffffff/00000002
mmio ffffffff/00000002
dev: apic, id “”
dev-prop: id = 0
mmio fee00000/00100000

So while it didn’t do what I wanted, this kind of was a good way to see that I could at least enable ISA IDE hard disks on Qemu.

I can only wonder why on earth they are still broken with regards to Netware.

AMD PCNet with Netware 3.12

Well I found out that the AMD PCnet driver will work on Netware 3.12 on Qemu 0.9.0 with a little cajouling. So to switch from the NE2000, I first downloaded the following files:


From odi33g.exe, copy out the following files to your server directory


Your server directory should contain…


Then configure your autoexec.ncf like this…

load c:\server.312\msm31x
load c:\server.312\pcntnw slot=2 frame=ETHERNET_II
bind ipx to pcntnw net=c0ffcab
load c:\server.312\nw4-idle

I’m not sure about the speed, but the idle NLM is fantastic, it means that your VM won’t run at 100% cpu…

Wasn’t that fun?

More failure on the Netware front….

Years ago Netware sold these 4.1 dev kits on the cheap, and I picked one up in College. Back then the selling point was that along with Watcom you could actually run Netware 4.1 along with OS/2, and do all the dev loading on the same machine!

What a time saver, not to mention you could simulate a LAN on the same PC as each MS-DOS VM could have it’s own virtual NIC and each VM could login independently.

Anyways, I thought I’d go ahead and give this thing a shot, since I haven’t run this in a while, so I installed OS/2 2.11 on Qemu 0.14.0, and … got this.

Qemu 0.14.0 OS/2 and Netware crash

Qemu 0.14.0 OS/2 and Netware crash

PNW0162: An internal error has occurred. The program cannot initialize the GDT information.

Which of course is the Global Descriptor Table, and I don’t know why it can’t play with it… Qemu limitation? OS/2?

Anyways afterwards, I get this.

Qemu 0.14.0 OS/2 and Netware trap

Qemu 0.14.0 OS/2 and Netware trap

Trap 000d

And you thought Windows NT blue screen of death was impossible to read…

Some fun networking with MS-DOS & Novell Netware.

Ok I wanted to do this eventually but now I’ve finally done it. I have constructed something a little complex but it works surprisingly well.

Let me draw a picture so it’ll be a little easier to follow:

proxmox Netware diagram

proxmox Netware diagram


All of the machines in clouds are virtual…

Ok I’m going to assume you can install & configure OpenVPN on your own. I did a really simple install on Proxmox VE, just be sure to use the e1000 network adapters. All the others gave me tones of errors with any sizable traffic. Also I should point out that I’m using OpenBSD 4.3 which is the latest as of today.

dev tun0
dev-type tap
ca /etc/openvpn/ca.crt
cert /etc/openvpn/server.crt
dh /etc/openvpn/dh1024.pem
key /etc/openvpn/server.key
push “route”
push “dhcp-option DNS”
keepalive 10 120
max-clients 100
status /var/log/openvpn-status.log
verb 3
tun-mtu 1500
fragment 1300

Again I just followed the example from the OpenVPN site to set this up. What makes this different though is the fact that I’m using this in a bridge mode. As you can see I have told OpenVPN that it is to use the tun0 interface as a ‘tap’ driver.

My hostname.tun0 is this:
Link0 up

Likewise the bridgename.bridge0 is:
add em1
add tun0

And finally for this example my bridgename.em1 is:
inet NONE

So using this setup I have a ‘private’ network in which I’ve got a few virtual machines running and space for my laptop to VPN into. Now one of the virtual servers on my Proxmox server is Windows NT 4.0 Terminal Server… Yeah I know I got it cheap on ebay, and I kind of like it. Anyways I’m running Qemu on it, which is running Netware 3.12. I installed the libpcap then I had to find out what my Ethernet devices are called. I used wireshark (it was ethereal) and it’s a cool program to have around. The last version to run under Windows NT 4.0 was 0.99.4 so that’s the one I used. Once I have done this I found my device and was able to setup a string for Qemu (which was \Device\NPF_RTL80291)

Here is what I’m using:

Qemu –had netware.disk –m 16 –M isapc –L pc-bios –net nic –net pcap,devicename=”\Device\NPF_RTL80291”

This sets up an ISA computer with 16 megaybtes of ram and a single ISA nic that will utilize libpcap to send out frames on the rtl80291 that’s being emulated to my NT terminal server by proxmox.

On the ‘client’ side of things, I’m running the 64 bit version of Vista. So I’ve installed the OpenVPN that not only has 64 bit device drivers, but has a nice little GUI to connect & disconnect from the networks. Here is the OpenVPN config that is on my laptop.

dev tap
ca ca.crt
cert client1.crt
key client1.key
proto udp
remote 1194
resolv-retry infinite
tun-mtu 1500
fragment 1300

Ok, so far so good. Now I do have Virtual PC 2007 on my laptop, and I have made sure that the “Virtual Machine Network Services” were bound to the “TAP-Win32 Adapter V9” interface.

The it’s a simple matter of connecting to the VPN, then loading up the virtual PC with MS-DOS & the Novell Netware client.

Then you should be able to ‘bind’ to the server & login!

dos netware client

dos netware client

The ‘cool’ thing about this setup is that it will work over things like wifi, and easily allow you to add clients near & far. Oh and the best part for the wifi crowd is that it will use REAL encryption since WEP/WPA have all been shown to be useless. Oh yes, and it should allow you to host your DOOM, Quake 1, Rise of the Triad, Warcraft II, and Descent games…. Along with people playing at home! Using this you too can build your own IPX/Internet network!

I do hope this clears some of the uses & versility of Virtual servers, Qemu & Virtual Networking.